A Latin phrase, literally meaning “and from the Son,” found in western versions of the Nicene Creed. On this view, the Holy Spirit originates and proceeds from both the Father and the Son, rather than (as in the Eastern church) from the Father alone. The phrase had its origins at the third council of Toledo (589). By the ninth century, it was regularly in use within the western church. After the 1054 schism, it became one of the major theological points of difference between the Orthodox and Catholic churches, and a subject of intense debate and polemic on both sides